Inscribed ostraca, seals, and coins are also found. Among the inscriptions from the late period of the Second Temple besides those found at Qumran on jars and ostraca, leather parchment, papyrus, and metal, which cannot be enumerated here, the following may be noted: Proto-Sinaitic script and Proto-Canaanite script The earliest known alphabetic or "proto-alphabetic" inscriptions are the so-called Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script sporadically attested in the Sinai and in Canaan in the late Middle and Late Bronze Age.
We are often told that the Phoenicians invented the alphabet, though some debate this. There were also distinct variants of the writing system in different parts of Greece, primarily in how those Phoenician characters that did not have an exact match to Greek sounds were used.
The inscription is the simple type indicating ownership and was probably incised le-Aharon — the writing surface being almond wood verse This upset the long-standing status of writing systems only being learned and employed by members of the royal and religious hierarchies of society, who used writing as an instrument of power to control access to information by the larger population.
This picture predates the above Calah material by about a quarter of a century and demonstrates the Western Semites' familiarity with this writing surface. They are concerned mainly with the delivery of wine, flour, bread, and oil to certain persons and also to the Kittim ktyma term used in the Bible for people from Cyprus or the Aegean isles.
The ancient and modern-day translators just did the best they could. First glyph "Nar" Egyptian "monster fish," "cuttle fish. This practice of using a pictograph to stand for the first sound in the word it stood for is called acrophony and was the first step in the development of an ALPHABET or the "One Sign-One sound" system of writing.
Development[ edit ] The Phoenician letter forms shown here are idealized: The Sefire treaty inscriptions from north Syria contain the treaty made by the king of Arpad and his overlord, the king of the Kashkeans. These inscriptions are replete with phrases reminiscent of biblical idiom e.
The Egyptian consonants were: The signs of the Sumerians were adopted by the East Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia and Akkadian became the first Semitic language and would be used by the Babylonians and Assyrians.
They were constructed so as to contain an inscription on wax. There is still some degree of disagreement as to the deciphering of these brief inscriptions. Here again several curse formulas have been scribbled on the walls of a family tomb. A revival of the Paleo-Hebrew script takes place during this period.
However, scholars could not find any link between the two writing systems, nor to hieratic or cuneiform. Modern rediscovery[ edit ] The Phoenician alphabet was first uncovered in the 17th century, but up to the 19th century its origin was unknown.
The so-called Ahiram epitaphfrom about BC, engraved on the sarcophagus of king Ahiram in Byblos, Lebanon, one of five known Byblian royal inscriptionsshows essentially the fully developed Phoenician script,  although the name "Phoenician" is by convention given to inscriptions beginning in the mid 11th century BC.
Their plate on the left was written in Phoenician, and the other one in Etruscan. Its simplicity not only allowed it to be used in multiple languages, but it also allowed the common people to learn how to write.We begin our examination of this evidence by noting that both sides in the ‘rise of the Minoans’ argument agree on the following points: At the end of the fourth millennium BC, Crete was a rural agricultural society, whose people existed on self-sufficient, subsistence farming.
[ix] Minimal, if any, trade took place, mainly confined to what one family might exchange with its neighbor. A fairly eye-opening account of how -- and why -- the alphabet and early writing came into being is described in the book Phoenician Secrets. In this well researched and intriguing narrative, the mysterious Phoenicians and the ancient Mediterranean are experienced in rich detail.
Phoenician alphabet, writing system that developed out of the North Semitic alphabet and was spread over the Mediterranean area by Phoenician traders.
It is the probable ancestor of the Greek alphabet and, hence, of all Western alphabets. The earliest Phoenician inscription that has survived is the. What is this site about? PhoeniciaOrg is the largest compilation & repository of studies on the web.
It covers extensive and inclusive Canaanite Phoenician information i.e. the origin, history, geography, religion, arts, thinkers, trade, industry, mythology, language, literature, music, wars, archaeology, and culture of this people.
The Phoenician writing system is, by virtue of being an alphabet, simple and easy to learn, and also very adaptable to other languages, quite unlike cuneiform or hieroglyphics.
In the 9th century BCE the Aramaeans had adopted the Phoenician alphabet, added symbols for. The word "cuneiform" comes from the Latin word "cuneus", meaning "wedge". Its script, called cuneiform, meaning "wedge-shaped". Emerging in Sumer in the late 4th millennium BC, cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs.Download